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Friday, 24 October 2014



Chemical structure for Pranlukast
  • Benzamide, N-(4-oxo-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-4H-1-benzopyran-8-yl)-4-(4-phenylbutoxy)-
  •  N-(4-Oxo-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-4H-1-benzopyran-8-yl)-p-(4-phenylbutoxy)benzamide
  • 4-Oxo-8-(4-(4-phenylbutoxy)benzoylamino)-2-(tetrazol-5-yl)-4H-1-benzopyran
  • N-(4-Oxo-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-4H-1-benzopyran-8-yl)-p-(4-phenylbutoxy)benzamide

Launched – 1995 japan
hemihydrate, 103177-37-3 anhydrous, 103180-28-5 (monosodium salt)
150821-03-7, C27 H23 N5 O4 . H2O, 499.5179
Ono-1070 (monosodium salt)
 Ultair; Ono-1078; HY-B0290;
  • Azlaire
  • CCN 00401
  • ONO 1078
  • ONO-1078
  • ONO-RS 411
  • Pranlukast
  • RS 411
  • SB 205312
  • UNII-TB8Z891092
N-[4-Oxo-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-4H-1-benzopyran-8-yl]-4-(4-phenylbutoxy)benzamide hemihydrate
Ono (Originator)Schering-Plough (Licensee)
This is described in…………
J Med Chem 1988, 31(1): 84,
WO 2010002075,
Synth Commun 1997, 27(6): 1065,
WO 1994012492
Leukotriene antagonist.
Prepn: M. Toda et al., EP 173516eidem, US 4780469 (1986, 1988 both to Ono);
H. Nakai et al., J. Med. Chem. 31, 84 (1988).
Pharmacology: T. Obata et al., Adv. Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukotriene Res. 15, 229 (1985); idem et al., ibid. 17,540 (1987).
Clinical evaluations in asthma: Y. Taniguchi et al., J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 92, 507 (1993); H. Yamamoto et al. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 150, 254 (1994).
AU 8546462; EP 0173516; JP 8650977; US 4780469; US 4939141
Pranlukast is a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 antagonist. It antagonizes or reduces bronchospasm caused, principally in asthmatics, by an allergic reaction to accidentally or inadvertently encountered allergens.
Pranlukast is a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 antagonist. This drug works similarly to Merck & Co.‘s Singulair (montelukast). It is widely used in Japan.


Pranlukast and its hydrates come into the market as a capsule of Onon® Cap. (112.5 mg pranlukast hydrates/capsule, Dong-A Pharmaceutical).
Figure imgf000003_0001
The conventional method for preparing pranlukast was disclosed in US Pat. No. 5,587,483 and pranlukart is prepared by the following reaction formula I.
Reaction Formula I
Figure imgf000003_0002
As described in the reaction formula I, the acid chloride represented by formula 11 is obtained by reacting the benzoic derivative of formula 10 with the thionyl chloride. The resulting compound is reacted with the compound represented by formula 4. The compound (n = 4) represented by formula 5 is reacted with the tetrazol derivative represented by formula 6 to introduce tetrazol group and then benzopyran ring is formed, preparing pranlukast. However, the preparation method according to the reaction formula I has quite a few problems: (a) difficult manipulation due to utilizing excess amounts of toxic thionyl chlorides around a reflux temperature when the acid chloride represented by formula 11 is obtained by reacting the benzoic derivative of formula 10 with the thionyl chloride;
(b) hard elimination of thionyl chlorides toxic in a body after terminating the reactions; (c) requirement of base in an equivalent ratio of above 4 to collect the compound represented by formula 7; (d) unsuitability of massive production in a economical area because the compound is modified into a form of natrium salt and then purified for removal of contaminants after preparing pranlukart.
On the other hand, as described in the following reaction formula II in US Pat. No. 5,874,593, nitril compounds of formula 8 are reacted with hydrazine to prepare amidrazone compounds of formula 9a and 9b, and then pranlukart is fabricated by performing a tetrazol ring reaction using nitrous acids.
Reaction Formula II
Figure imgf000004_0001
However, the preparation method according to the reaction formula II has also the following difficulties: (a) it is difficult to perform the method due to utilizing excess amounts of toxic thionyl chlorides around a reflux temperature to obtain the acid chloride derivative in the preparation of the compounds represented by formula 8; (b) it is very difficult and toxic in body to eliminate thionyl chlorides after terminating the reactions; (c) it is not easy to massively produce the compounds of interest in an industrial-scale because much hydrazine toxic in body and nitrogen oxides harmful in environment are generated and unstable nitrous acids are used during the reactions.
Likewise, US Pat. No. 5,874,593, as described in the following reaction formula III, discloses that benzoic derivatives of formula 10′ are reacted with oxalyl chlorides to isolate acid chlorides represented by formula 11′, and the resulting acid chlorides are reacted with benzopyran amine derivatives containing tetrazol of formula 12, producing various derivatives containing pranlukart.

Reaction Formula III
Figure imgf000005_0001
( I D’ ] (H ‘ )
Figure imgf000005_0002
Oxalyl chlorides are massively used because the preparation method according to the reaction formula III is very expensive cost and has highly hygroscopic characteristics. In addition, the method has to be carried out under violent conditions that the temperature is increased up to around reflux temperature using 1,2- dichloroethanol as a solvent and further reacted for 1 hr. It is also difficult to remove harmful carbon monoxide and chlorine gases massively generated in elimination of oxalyl chloride after terminating the reactions, and it is not feasible to be applied into an industrial mass-production because the reaction is carried out under conditions of anhydrous and inactive gases

EXAMPLE 1: Preparation of Pranlukart Hemihydrates 4-(4-phenylbutoxy)benzoic acid (29.1 g; 1.1 equivalent ratio; prepared according to the method disclosed in US Pat. No. 4,780,469) was dissolved in 80 ml dimethylacetamide (DMAC, Aldrich) at 00C and then thionyl chloride (14.2 g, 1.2 equivalent ratio, Aldrich) was gradually added to the solution. After the mixture solution was stirred for 10 min at 00C, the mixture of 8-amino-4-oxo-tetrazol-5-yl-4H- 1-benzopyran hydrochloride salt (26.7 g; 1 equivalent ratio; prepared according to the method disclosed in US Pat. No. 4,780,469) and triethylamine (TEA, 10.1 g, 1 equivalent ratio, Aldrich) dissolved in 80 ml dimethylacetamide (DMAC, Aldrich) was slowly added to the mixture solution, and thermally stirred for 5 hrs at 25°C.
The reaction mixture was mixed with 300 ml H2O and stirred for 1 hr at 250C. The solid material obtained by filtering the solid material produced was washed with 100 ml H2O. 200 ml 50% acetone aqueous solution was added to the solid material and then refluxed for 1 hr. After the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, filtered and air-dried, the mixture was kept to stand on air for 5 hrs, obtaining 47.0 g pranlukart hemihydrates (yield rate: 98%): melting point 231-233°C (decomposition); 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz) δ 1.9 (m, 4H), 2,7 (m, 2H), 4.0 (t, 2H), 7.0 (s, 2H), 7.1 (s, IH), 7.2-7.3 (m, 5H), 7.6 (t, IH), 7.9 (t, IH), 8.0 (m, 2H), 8.3 (t, IH), 10.0 (bs, IH).

Saturday, 18 October 2014


MW 101
the degree of unsaturation: the answer is 0. The molecule has no double bonds or rings.
IR Spectrum
Since the molecule has a nitrogen, look for a band in the region 3400-3250 – there is a single small band at 3384, which probably indicates the N-H stretch of a secondary amine. (Recall that tertiary amines will not show a band in this region because they do not have any N-H’s to stretch.)

NMR Spectrum


Amine protons show up from 0.5-3.0 ppm if the amine is not on an aromatic ring; the small “buried” peak at 1 ppm indicates a secondary amine peak:
There are only two other types of protons in the molecule: the doublet at 1 ppm indicates 12 hydrogens adjacent to one hydrogen and the septet at 2.9 ppm indicates 2 hydrogens adjacent to 6 hydrogens. The only way the molecule can be “put together” is to have each R group coming off the nitrogen to be the same, and to be -CH(CH3)2.




Example is diisopropylamine:

Tuesday, 14 October 2014


5-[[4-[2-(5-ethyl-2-pyridinyl)-ethoxy]phenyl] methyl]- 2,4- thiazolidinedione
5-{4-[2-(5-Ethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-ethoxy]-benzyl}-2,4-thiazolidene dione
cas  111025-46-8
Additional Names: (±)-5-[p-[2-(ethyl-2-pyridyl)ethoxy]benzyl]-2,4-thiazolidinedione

US 2014088127
5-[4-[2-(5-ethylpyridyl)ethoxy]benzyl-2,4-thiazolidinedione (Pioglitazone hydrochloride, R in 1 is 5-ethyl).
Figure US20140088127A1-20140327-C00001
5-{4-[2-(5-Ethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-ethoxy]-benzyl}-2,4-thiazolidene dione (1)
To 5 g (0.0121 mol) of 5-{4-[2-chloro-2-(5-ethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-ethoxy]-benzyl}-2,4-thiazolidene dione dissolved in 25 mL acetic acid was added 1.62 (0.0243 mol) g zinc in 5 min. Stirring continued for 15 hours at 25-30° C. Reaction mixture was poured in excess water, made alkaline using 10% Na2COand extracted with ethyl acetate. After distilling off ethyl acetate in vacuo, methanol was added to precipitate out 1.13 g (25%) g of the crystalline solid product. The two impurities identified in this reaction were 5-ethyl-2-vinyl-pyridine 0.128 g (10%) and 5-(4-hydroxy benzyl)-thiazolidin-2,4-dione 0.342 g (12%).
The product obtained was characterized by IR, Mass, 13C NMR, and 1H NMR, which are as given below. pioglitazone base
IR spectrum (cm−1): 3417 (N—H str.), 1693, 1743 (C═O str.), 1037 (C—O—C str.)
Mass spectrum (m/z) 357.1 (M+H)+
13C-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 176.5, 172.5, 157.8, 152.1, 145.9, 142.0, 141.1, 131.2, 129.9, 127.8, 115.2, 66.2, 53.8, 37.0, 33.2, 25.4, 15.5
1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 12.0 (1H, s), 6.84-8.71 (7H, m), 4.86 (1H, dd), 4.38 (2H, t), 3.48 (2H, t), 3.25 (1H, dd), 3.04 (1H, dd), 2.75 (2H,q), 1.21 (3H, t)
Melting point 172-175° C.
The final product was dissolved into 12 mL methanol and 0.05 mL con. HCl was added into it at 25° C. Reaction mixture was refluxed for 30 min. and cooled to 10° C. Precipitated hydrochloride salt was filtered off and dried to yield 1.1 g (22%) of the salt, which was characterized by IR, Mass, 13C NMR and 1H NMR, which are as given below.
pioglitazone hydrochloride
IR spectrum (cm−1): 3257 (N—H str.), 1689, 1743 (C═O str.), 1155, 1244 (C—O—C str.)
Mass spectrum (m/z): 357.1 (M+H)+
13C-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 175.7, 171.7, 157.0, 151.0, 141.1, 129.0, 145.4, 139.8, 127.2, 130.4, 114.4, 65.4, 53.0, 39.2, 36.2, 24.6, 14.6
1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 12.09 (1H, s), 6.82-8.7 (7H, m), 4.8 (1H, dd), 4.38 (2H, t), 3.5 (2H, t), 3.0 (2H, m), 2.75 (2H,q), 1.21 (3H, t)
Melting point: 190-193° C.


Chemical structure for Mitoglitazone
MSDC-0160; CAY 10415; 146062-49-9
5-(4-(2-(5-cthylpyridin-2-yl)- 2-oxoethoxy)benzyl)-1,3 -thiazolidiiie-2,4-dione
Pfizer, INNOVATOR  phase 2
J. Med. Chem.199639 (26), pp 5053–5063
DOI: 10.1021/jm9605694
Pioglitazone (5-(4-(2-(5-ethyl-2-pyridyl)ethoxy)benzyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione, 2) is a prototypical antidiabetic thiazolidinedione that had been evaluated for possible clinical development. Metabolites 69 have been identified after dosing of rats and dogs. Ketone 10has not yet been identified as a metabolite but has been added to the list as a putative metabolite by analogy to alcohol 6and ketone 7. We have developed improved syntheses of pioglitazone (2) metabolites 69 and the putative metabolite ketone 10. These entities have been compared in the KKAy mouse model of human type-II diabetes to pioglitazone (2). Ketone 10 has proven to be the most potent of these thiazolidinediones in this in vivo assay. When 610 were compared in vitro in the 3T3-L1 cell line to 2, for their ability to augment insulin-stimulated lipogenesis, 10 was again the most potent compound with 67, and 9roughly equivalent to 2. These data suggest that metabolites 67, and 9 are likely to contribute to the pharmacological activity of pioglitazone (2), as had been previously reported for ciglitazone (1).
5-((4-(2-(5-Ethyl-2-pyridyl)-1-oxoethoxy)phenyl)methyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (10). MITOGLITAZONE
free flowing white powdery solid
(mp 146−147 °C):
TLC (Merck; MeOH−CH2Cl2, 5:95, UV(+)) Rf = 0.21;
1H-NMR (CDCl3) δ 8.95 (brs, 1), 8.52 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1), 8.02 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1),
7.70 (dd, J = 8.0, 2.0 Hz, 1), 7.16 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 2), 6.94 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 2),
5.62 (s, 2), 4.49 (dd, J = 9.7, 3.8 Hz, 1), 3.47 (dd, J = 14.2, 3.8 Hz, 1),
3.08 (dd, J = 14.2, 9.7 Hz, 1), 2.76 (q, J = 7.6 Hz, 2), 1.31 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 3);

13C-NMR (CDCl3) δ 194.7, 174.1, 170.4, 157.7, 149.7, 148.9, 144.7, 136.3, 130.3, 128.4, 121.9, 115.2, 70.5, 53.7, 37.8, 26.4, 15.0;
EI/MS (70 eV) 370 (M+, 19.4), 341 (6.9), 254 (20.6), 148 (base).
Anal. (C19H18N2O4S) C, H, N, S.
WILL BE UPDATED…….keep watching this post

EFINACONAZOLE , Эфинаконазол ,艾非康唑 , إيفيناكونازول


cas 164650-44-6, Efinaconazole [INN], UNII-J82SB7FXWB,  AC1LAJ21, Efinaconazole [USAN:INN],
  • Efinaconazole
  • Jublia
  • KP-103
Molecular Formula: C18H22F2N4O   Molecular Weight: 348.390286
Chemical structure for EFINACONAZOLEefinaconazole


(2R,3R)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methylidenepiperidin-1-yl)-1-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-ol NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 164650-44-6 NMR spectral analysis, (2R,3R)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methylidenepiperidin-1-yl)-1-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-ol H-NMR spectrum

(2R,3R)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methylidenepiperidin-1-yl)-1-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-ol NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 164650-44-6 NMR spectral analysis, (2R,3R)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methylidenepiperidin-1-yl)-1-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-ol C-NMR spectrum






“Drugs at FDA: JUBLIA”. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
NDA Appl No
RLD Active Ingredient Dosage Form; Route Strength Proprietary Name Applicant

Patent Data

Appl No Prod No US Patent No Patent
Drug Substance
Drug Product
Patent Use

N203567 001 7214506 Oct 5, 2021

U – 281
N203567 001 8039494 Jul 8, 2030

U – 281
N203567 001 8486978 Oct 24, 2030

Exclusivity Data

Appl No Prod No Exclusivity Code Exclusivity Expiration
N203567 001 NCE Jun 6, 2019
Efinaconazole is a triazole antifungal. It is approved for use in Canada as 10% topical solution for the treatment of onychomycosis (fungal infection of the nail).[1][2] Efinaconazole acts as a 14α-demethylase inhibitor.[3]

Figure US20130150586A1-20130613-C00002
Example 1Production of (2R,3R)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methylenepiperidin-1-yl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-ol (KP-103)21.26 g (119.4 mmol) of the 4-methylenepiperidine hydrobromide (4-MP.HBr) obtained in Production 1 and 2.859 g (119.4 mmol) of lithium hydroxide were added to 80 mL of acetonitrile and stirred for a while. Thereafter, 20 g (79.6 mmol) of (2R,3S)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-methyl-2-[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]oxirane was added and the mixture was heated under reflux in an oil bath (external temperature: 100° C.) for 14 hours. After the reaction completed, ethanol and distilled water were added to the reaction mixture, whereupon a crystal was precipitated. Thereafter, the crystal was filtered off, washed with 40 mL of an ethanol/water mixture, dried with air at room temperature and further dried under reduced pressure at 40° C. for 12 hours to give a pale yellow crystal of KP-103 in an amount of 24.2 g (yield, 87.3%; purity on HPLC, 95.3%).

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3)δ: 0.96 (3H, dd, J=2.68, 7.08 Hz), 2.13-2.26 (4H, m), 2.35 (2H, br), 2.70 (2H, br), 2.90-2.94 (1H, q, J=7.08 Hz), 4.64 (2H, s), 4.82 (1H, dd, J=0.73, 14.39 Hz), 4.87 (1H, dd, J=0.73, 14.39 Hz), 5.45 (1H, s), 6.72-6.81 (2H, m), 7.51 (1H, dt, J=6.59, 9.03 Hz), 7.78 (1H, s), 8.02 (1H, s).
FAB-MS m/z: 349 [M+H]+
melting point: 86-89° C.
optical rotation: [α]D 25 −87 to −91° (C=1.0, methanol)
Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2014 ,  vol. 79,   7  pg. 3272 – 3278
A new synthetic route, the shortest reported to date, to access a key intermediate for the synthesis of various triazole antifungal agents was developed. The elusive tetrasubstituted stereogenic center that is essential in advanced triazole antifungal agents was constructed via the catalytic asymmetric cyanosilylation of a ketone. The subsequent transformations were performed in two one-pot operations, enhancing the overall synthetic efficiency toward the intermediate. This streamlined synthetic approach was successfully applied to efficient enantioselective syntheses of efinaconazole (Jublia) and ravuconazole.
Scheme 3. Synthesis of Efinaconazole (Jublia)
(2R,3R)-2-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methylenepiperidin-1-yl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-ol (Efinaconazole)
To a solution of 1 (54.2 mg, 0.216 mmol) in EtOH (217 μL) was added 4-methylenepiperidine (147 mg, 1.51 mmol), ……………………deleted………………. see original…………….. was purified using silica gel column chromatography (CHCl3/MeOH = 10:1) to give 67.6 mg ofefinaconazole (90% yield) as a colorless amorphous solid.

[α]D20 −87.8 (c 1.12, CHCl3);
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.00 (s, 1H), 7.76 (s, 1H), 7.51–7.45 (m, 1H), 6.78–6.68 (m, 2H), 5.50 (brs, 1H), 4.85 (d,J = 14.4 Hz, 1H), 4.78 (d, J = 14.4 Hz, 1H), 4.61 (s, 2H), 2.88 (q, J = 6.9 Hz, 1H), 2.66 (br s, 2H), 2.32 (br s, 2H), 2.21–2.17 (m, 4H), 0.93 (dd, J = 6.9, 2.1 Hz, 3H);

13C NMR (150 MHz, CDCl3) δ 162.5 (dd, J = 250, 13 Hz), 158.5 (dd, J = 246, 12 Hz), 151.3, 145.9, 144.4, 130.6 (dd, J = 8.7, 5.8 Hz), 124.7 (dd, J= 14, 3.6 Hz), 111.4 (dd, J = 20, 2.9 Hz), 108.1, 104.1 (dd, J = 28, 25 Hz), 77.7 (d, J = 5.8 Hz), 64.4, 55.9 (d, J = 8.7 Hz), 52.4, 35.2, 7.63 (d, J = 2.9 Hz);

19F NMR (376 MHz, CDCl3) δ −105.8, −110.7;

IR (CHCl3, cm–1) ν 3423, 3073, 2979, 2939, 2899, 2810, 1615, 1498, 1418, 1273, 1138;

HRMS (ESI-TOF) calcd for C18H23ON4F2 [M + H]+ m/z 349.1834, found 349.1828.



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He was only in first standard in school when I was hit by a deadly one in a million spine stroke called acute transverse mylitis, it made me 90% paralysed and bound to a wheel chair, Now I keep him as my source of inspiration and helping millions, thanks to millions of my readers who keep me going and help me to keep my son happy